The prototypes that have been developed are based on intelligent vision machines endowed with technological features adequate to the events to detect: Goal Line Monitoring (GF); Offside (FG); Game events monitoring inside penalty area (MEGAR).
Vision machines are based on optical remote detecting sensors which operate in the visible area (with infrared only bandwidth). The features of such sensors depend on each prototype due to the type and dynamic of the events to be detected or monitored. Peculiar features of the sensors are the spatial resolution, ranging from 0.5 Mega-pixel for Goal line monitoring prototype to 2 Mega-pixel for FG and MEGAR prototypes, and temporal resolution (the number of acquired images per seconds) ranging form 25 images/sec for the FG prototype, 50 images/sec for MEGAR prototypes up to 200 images/sec for GF prototype.
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The prototypes employ non invasive technologies both for the field structures (field, ball, posts, crossbars, etc.) and the players, referees, assistants and audience. All the machine sensors are placed on the stadium infrastructures (high on the stands) and are quite far from the field so that they do not interfere with audience vision.
GOAL LINE MONITORING
There are two cameras on both sides of each goal post with the focal axis placed in the goal post plane and centering towards the mid point of the white goal line under the cross bar. The position of the four cameras allows the system to evaluate the ball trajectory and to detect if the goal line has been crossed.
Picture shows how the 6 vision machines, observing in couples the whole field, are placed. Each couple acquires continuously, autonomously and independently digital image sequences and processes them.
For each penalty area, two cameras are located on the opposite stands with the optical axes lying on the same vertical centered on the field area to observe and bent so as to intersect the longitudinal symmetry axis of the field. Two more cameras are located on the stands behind the goal in order to monitor the longer side of the penalty area.
Objectivity and immediacy of detected events
The developed systems are able to acquire, record, process and show in real time image sequences of the entire game. Relevant events are detected and reported and are available for a successive analysis in off-line mode.
Support to referees and assistants
relevant events are communicated by the system in real-time, by radio, to the referees with no game interruption, as provided by the FIFA rules. These technologies do not replace the referees and have to be considered as a support system for decision making, since they provide in real-time the system verdict.
Hardware and software technologies of the systems are respectful of privacy and transparency of the recorded events. Each event detected by the system is recorded as a digital video clip, a kind of electronic report of the event. In this way it is possible to have an objective report of the event both in real and deferred time (eg. for training purposes). The reproducibility of the event and the corresponding processing by the prototypes allow objective assessment of the events and a correct decision making process.
The systems have been developed from open and free technologies.
Patents are available according to the regulations for product engineering.
Support systems for the training of referees
Each system is endowed with a user friendly hardware and software multi-media interface for post-game technical analysis of the recorded events.
HIGH SPEED CAMERA GOAL DETECTION